Scholarly Resources

These scholarly resources have informed this project and are from peer-reviewed journals.

Family needs and support

Al-Mutair, A., Plummer, V., O’Brien, A., & Clerehan, R. (2013). Family needs and involvement in the intensive care unit: A literature review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(13), 1805-1817 13p.

Bond, A. E., Draeger, C. R. L., Mandleco, B. & Donnelly, M. (2003). Needs of family members of patient with severe traumatic brain injury: Implications for evidence-based practice. Critical Care Nurse, 23(4), 63-71.

Coco, K., Tossavainen, K., Jaaskelainen, J.E., Turunen, H. (2011). Support for traumatic brain injury patient’ family members in neurosurgical nursing: A systematic review. American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, 43(6), 337-348.

Engstrom, A., & Soderberg, S. (2007). Close relatives in intensive care from the perspective of critical care nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(9), 1651-1659 9p.

Engström, Å. & Söderberg, S. (2004). The experiences of partners of critically ill persons in an intensive care unit. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 20(5), 299-308.

Giovannetti, A., Cerniauskaite, M., Leonardi, M., Sattin, D., & Covelli, V. (2014). Informal caregivers of patients with disorders of consciousness: Experience of ambiguous loss. Brain Injury, 29(4), 473-480.

Hwang, D. Y., Yagoda, D., Perrey, H. M., Tehan, T. M., Guanci, M., Ananian, L., et al. (2014). Assessment of satisfaction with care among family members of survivors in a neuroscience intensive care unit. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 46(2), 106-116.

Johansson, I., Fridlund, B., & Hildingh, C. (2005). What is supportive when an adult next-of-kin is in critical care? Nursing in Critical Care, 10(6), 289-298 10p.

Kennan, A., & Joseph, L.  (2010). The needs of family members of severe traumatic brain injured patients during critical and acute care: A qualitative study. Canada Neuroscience Nursing, 32(3), 25-35. Retrieved from

Lefebvre, H., & Levert, M. J. (2012). The needs experienced by individuals and their loved ones following a traumatic brain injury. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 19(4), 197-207 11p.

Linnarsson, J. R., Bubini, J., & Perseius, K. (2010). Review: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research into needs and experiences of significant others to critically ill or injured patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(21), 3102-3111 10p.

Pryzby, B. J. (2005). Effects of nurse caring behaviors on family stress responses in critical care. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 21(1), 16-23.


Benight, C. C., Shoji, K., James, L. E., Waldrep, E. E., Delahanty, D. L., & Cieslak, R. (2015). Trauma coping self-efficacy: A context-specific self-efficacy measure for traumatic stress. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 7(6), 591-599.

Bosmans, M. W. G., van der Knaap, L. M., & van der Velden, P. G. (2016). The predictive value of trauma-related coping self-efficacy for posttraumatic stress symptoms: Differences between treatment-seeking and non–treatment-seeking victims. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 8(2), 241-248.

Caregiving and traumatic brain injury: Coping with grief and loss. (2015). Health & Social Work, 40(4), 325-328.

Kato, T. (2013). Frequently used coping scales: A meta-analysis. Stress Health, 31, 315-323.

Khiewchaum, R., Thosingha, O., Chayaput, P., Utriyaprasit, K. (2011). Coping with traumatic brain injury using the preparation program among caregivers of patients in the intensive care unit. Siriraj Med, 63, 128-131.

Kubler-Ross, E. (2009) On death and dying. London and New York, NY: Routledge.

Secondary trauma among social workers treating trauma clients: The role of coping strategies and internal resources. (2015). International Social Work, 58(4), 551-561 11p.

Zeidner, M. (. 1.). & Ben-Zur, H. (2014). Effects of an experimental social stressor on resources loss, negative affect, and coping strategies. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 27(4), 376-393.

Ambiguous loss

Bliezner, R., Roberto, K., Wilcox, B., E., & Winston. (2007). Dimensions of ambiguous loss in couples coping with mild cognitive impairment. Family Relations, 56(2), 196-209. 

Boss, P. (2010). The trauma and complicated grief of ambiguous loss. Pastoral Psychology, 59, 137-145.

Boss, P. (2007). Ambiguous loss theory: Challenges for scholars and practitioners. Family Relations, 56(2), 105-110.

Corr, C. A. (2015). Let’s stop “Staging” persons who are coping with loss. Illness, Crisis & Loss, 23(3), 226-241.

Griese, Brook. “Judi’s House: Grief And Loss”. Dec. 14, 2015. Presentation.

Guidry, K., Simpson, C., Test, T., & Bloomfield, C. (2013). Ambiguous loss and its effects on children: Implications and interventions for school counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 11, 1.

Kean, S. (2010). The experience of ambiguous loss in families of brain injured ICU patients. Nursing in Clinical Care, 15(2), 66-75.

Pérez, R. M. (2015). Cuba no; Miami Sí: Cuban Americans coping with ambiguous loss. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 25(1), 50-66.

Stroebe, M., Stroebe, W., van, d. S., Schut, H., Abakoumkin, G., & Li, J. (2014). Guilt in bereavement: The role of self-blame and regret in coping with loss

Worden, J.W.  (2009). Grief counseling and grief therapy (4th Ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Palliative care

Campbell, M. L. (2012). Case studies in palliative and end-of-life care. Winchester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.


Center for Disease Control. (2015) Report to Congress on traumatic brain injury epidemiology and rehabilitation: Recommendations for addressing critical gaps (Pg. 2) Retrieved from:

Corrigan, J., Horn, S., Barrett, R., Smout, R., Bogner, J., Hammond, F., et al. (2015). Effects of patient pre injury and injury characteristics on acute rehabilitation outcomes for traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(8), 209.

Cuthbert, J., Harrison-Felix, C., Corrigan, J., Kreider, S., Bell, J., Coronado, V. & Whiteneck., G. (2015). Epidemiology of adults receiving acute inpatient rehabilitation for a primary diagnosis of traumatic brain injury in the United States. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 30(n), 122-135.

Jourdan, C., Bayen, E., Darnoux, E., Ghout, I., Azerad, S., Ruet, A., Vallat, C., Pradat, P., Aegerter, P., Weiss, J., Azouvi, P. (2015). Patterns of post-acute health care utilization after a severe traumatic brain injury: Results from the PariS-TBI cohort. Brain Injury, 29(6), 701-708.

Nehra, A., Bajpai, S., Sinha, S., & Khandelwal, S. (2014). Holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation: Grief management in traumatic brain injury. Annals of Neurosciences, 21(3), 118-122.

Rose, John.  (2015, December 17). The standards for psychologists, social workers, and counselors in spinal cord injury rehabilitation [Webinar, Palo Alto Veterans Hospital]. Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals (ASCIP). 

General TBI

Kail, C. G. (2013). Successfully surviving a brain injury: A family guidebook; from the emergency room to selecting a rehabilitation facility. Library Journal, 138(16), 39.

Laureys, S., Majerus, S., & Moonen, G.  (2002). Assessing consciousness in critically ill patients. In J. Vincent (2002 Ed.), Intensive care medicine.  (715-727). Springer Publishing Company.

O’Callaghan, C., Powell, T., & Oyebode, J. (2006). An exploration of the experience of gaining awareness of deficit in people who have suffered a traumatic brain injury.Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15(5), 579-593.

Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B.  (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. The Lancet, 2, 81-84. Retrieved from

Herman, J. L. (1997). Trauma and recovery. New York, NY: Basic books.

Living with a TBI

Kieffer-Kristensen, R., & Johansen, K. (2013). Hidden loss: A qualitative explorative study of children living with a parent with acquired brain injury. Brain Injury, 27(13-14), 1562-1569.

Caregiving and TBI

Petersen, H., & Sanders, S. (2015). Caregiving and traumatic brain injury: Coping with grief and loss. Health & Social Work, 40(4), 325-328.

Rotondi, A. J., Sinkule, J., Balzer, K., Harris, J., & Moldovan, R. (2007). A qualitative needs assessment of persons who have experienced traumatic brain injury and their primary family caregivers. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22(1), 14-25.

Giovannetti, A. M., Cerniauskait, M., Leonardi, M., Sattin, D., & Covelli, V. (2015). Informal caregivers of patients with disorders of consciousness: Experience of ambiguous loss. Brain Injury, 29(4), 473-480 8p.



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